Three new kavalactone dimers from Piper methysticum (kava)

Three new dimeric kavalactones, designated as diyangonins A–C (1–3), along with two known analogs were isolated from the roots of Piper methysticum. Their structures were elucidated by means of extensive analysis of their 1D, 2D NMR, and mass spectroscopic data. All these dimers possess a skeleton featuring a cyclobutane ring connecting two kavalactone units in head-to-tail or head-to-head mode. Compounds 15 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against human tumor cell lines.