The emerging threat of artemisinin resistance in malaria: focus on artemether-lumefantrine

<div><p>The development of artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Subregion poses a significant threat to malaria elimination. Artemisinin-based combination therapies including artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are recommended by WHO as first-line treatment for uncomplicated <i>Plasmodium falciparum</i> malaria. This article provides a comprehensive review of the existing and latest data as a basis for interpretation of observed variability in parasite sensitivity to AL over the last 5 years. Clinical efficacy and preclinical data from a range of endemic countries are summarized, including potential molecular markers of resistance. Overall, AL remains effective in the treatment of uncomplicated <i>P. falciparum</i> malaria in most regions. Establishing validated molecular markers for resistance and strict efficacy monitoring will reinforce timely updates of treatment policies.</p></div>