The current burden of cytomegalovirus infection in kidney transplant recipients receiving no pharmacological prophylaxis

Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in kidney transplantation has changed its clinical spectrum, mostly due to the current and more effective immunosuppression. In the absence of preventive strategies it is associated with significant morbi-mortality. Objective: This study evaluated the incidence of CMV events and its effect on outcomes of kidney transplantation in recipients without pharmacological prophylaxis or targeted preemptive treatment. Results: The study cohort comprised 802 recipients of kidney transplants between 04/30/2014 and 04/30/2015. The majority received induction with anti-thymocyte globulin (81.5%), tacrolimus and prednisone in combination with either mycophenolate (46.3%) or azathioprine (53.7%). The overall incidence of CMV events was 42% (58.6% infection and 41.4% disease). Patients with CMV showed higher incidence of first treated acute rejection (19 vs. 11%, p = 0,001) compared with those without CMV but no differences in graft loss, death or loss to follow-up. The incidence of delayed graft function was higher (56% vs. 37%, p = 0.000) and the eGFR at 1 (41 ± 21 vs. 54 ± 28 ml/min, p = 0.000) and 12 months (50 ± 19 vs. 61 ± 29 ml/min, p = 0.000) were lower in patients with CMV. Recipients age (OR = 1.03), negative CMV serology (OR = 5.21) and use of mycophenolate (OR = 1.67) were associated with increased risk of CMV. Changes in immunosuppression was more often in patients with CMV (63% vs. 31%, p = 0.000). Conclusion: the incidence of CMV events was high and associated with higher incidence of acute rejection and changes in immunosuppression. Besides traditional risk factors, renal function at 1 month was independently associated with CMV infection.