The binding modes of cationic porphyrin-anthraquinone hybrids to DNA duplexes: in silico study
Cationic porphyrin-anthraquinone hybrids bearing peripheral substituents, either pyridine, imidazole, or pyrazole rings have been investigated for their binding mode to DNA duplexes. The four kinds of DNA duplexes were used, which represent intercalation and groove binding modes. AutoDock 4.2 was used to dock nine hybrid compounds to four DNA duplexes, while monitoring of conformational changes of four best hybrid–DNA complexes during 2 ns was performed by Amber9 molecular dynamics package. The binding energy calculation of best four complexes was then carried out using MMPBSA method. The hybrid compounds interacted to DNA duplexes through intercalation and groove binding modes. The minor groove binding of DNA was energetically preferred by cationic porphyrin hybrids due to favorable electrostatic and van der Waals interactions. Both electrostatic and van der Waals contributions were able to distinguish the binding mode of porphyrin hybrid to DNA duplexes.