The Structure of the Hydrated Electron. Part 2. A Mixed Quantum/Classical Molecular Dynamics Embedded Cluster Density Functional Theory:  Single−Excitation Configuration Interaction Study

Adiabatic mixed quantum/classical (MQC) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to generate snapshots of the hydrated electron in liquid water at 300 K. Water cluster anions that include two complete solvation shells centered on the hydrated electron were extracted from the MQC MD simulations and embedded in a roughly 18 Å × 18 Å × 18 Å matrix of fractional point charges designed to represent the rest of the solvent. Density functional theory (DFT) with the Becke−Lee−Yang−Parr functional and single-excitation configuration interaction (CIS) methods were then applied to these embedded clusters. The salient feature of these hybrid DFT(CIS)/MQC MD calculations is significant transfer (∼18%) of the excess electron's charge density into the 2p orbitals of oxygen atoms in OH groups forming the solvation cavity. We used the results of these calculations to examine the structure of the singly occupied and the lower unoccupied molecular orbitals, the density of states, the absorption spectra in the visible and ultraviolet, the hyperfine coupling (hfcc) tensors, and the infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of these embedded water cluster anions. The calculated hfcc tensors were used to compute electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectra for the hydrated electron that compared favorably to the experimental spectra of trapped electrons in alkaline ice. The calculated vibrational spectra of the hydrated electron are consistent with the red-shifted bending and stretching frequencies observed in resonance Raman experiments. In addition to reproducing the visible/near IR absorption spectrum, the hybrid DFT model also accounts for the hydrated electron's 190-nm absorption band in the ultraviolet. Thus, our study suggests that to explain several important experimentally observed properties of the hydrated electron, many-electron effects <i>must</i> be accounted for:  one-electron models that do not allow for mixing of the excess electron density with the frontier orbitals of the first-shell solvent molecules cannot explain the observed magnetic, vibrational, and electronic properties of this species. Despite the need for multielectron effects to explain these important properties, the ensemble-averaged radial wavefunctions and energetics of the highest occupied and three lowest unoccupied orbitals of the hydrated electrons in our hybrid model are close to the s- and p-like states obtained in one-electron models. Thus, one-electron models can provide a remarkably good approximation to the multielectron picture of the hydrated electron for many applications; indeed, the two approaches appear to be complementary.