(A) The learning task 2x2 factorial design. Different symbols were used as cues in each context, and symbol to context attribution was randomised across participants. The coloured frames are purely illustrative and represent each of the four context conditions throughout all figures. “Reward” = gain maximisation context; “Punishment” = loss minimisation context; “Partial”: counterfactual feedback was not provided; “Complete”: counterfactual feedback was provided; PGain = probability of gaining 1 point; PLoss = probability of losing 1 point. (B) Time course of example trials in the Reward/Partial (top) and Reward/Complete (bottom) conditions. Durations are given in seconds. Fig 1 was adapted by the authors from a figure originally published in , licensed under CC BY 4.0.