Table_2_The Gastric Microbiome Is Perturbed in Advanced Gastric Adenocarcinoma Identified Through Shotgun Metagenomics.xlsx

Objective: Dysbiosis of gastric microbiota such as Helicobacter pylori plays a significant role in pathogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the composition and functional effects of gastric microbiota in superficial gastritis (SG) and advanced gastric adenocarcinoma (GC).

Methods: We carried out shotgun metagenomic sequencing on gastric wash samples from 6 patients with GC and 5 patients with SG. The taxonomic composition was profiled using MetaPhlAn2 and functional gene pathway was profiled using HUMAnN2. Differences in microbial composition and pathways between the two patient groups were assessed via LEfSe.

Results: The gastric microbiota in GC patients was characterized by reduced species richness, enrichment of 13 bacterial taxa and depletion of 31 taxa (q < 0.05). The most representative taxa which were abundant in GC corresponded to the commensals or opportunistic pathogens that usually colonize the oral cavity, including genera Neisseria, Alloprevotella, and Aggregatibacter, species Streptococcus_mitis_oralis_pneumoniae and strain Porphyromonas_endodontalis.t_GCF_000174815. Each of the three GC-associated genera could separate GC from SG completely. In particular, Sphingobium yanoikuyae, a bacterium capable of degrading carcinogenic compounds, was depleted in GC. Functionally, pathways associated with the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and L-arginine were enriched in GC, whereas pathways involved in the fermentation of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched amino acid metabolism were more abundant in SG.

Conclusions: Our results present new alterations in the gastric microbiome in patients with GC from a whole-genome perspective, suggesting that microbiome composition and function can be used for prognosis and diagnosis of GC.