Synthesis of Repaglinide Congeners

This report describes a synthesis of two potent impurities of repaglinide, benzyl repaglinide 1 and repaglinide isomer 2, from commercially available raw materials: 2-fluoro benzonitrile, (S)-3-methyl-1-[2-(piperidin-1-yl)phenyl]butylamine (5), and 3-ethoxy-[4-(ethoxycarbonyl)phenyl]acetic acid (7). These impurities are the crucial components in determining the quality of the drug substance, repaglinide, during its manufacturing.