Supporting Information from Imaging optical scattering of butterfly wing scales with a microscope

A new optical method is proposed to investigate the reflectance of structurally coloured objects, such as <i>Morpho</i> butterfly wing scales and cholesteric liquid crystals. Using a reflected-light microscope and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera, we have successfully measured the two-dimensional reflection pattern of individual wing scales of <i>Morpho</i> butterflies.We demonstrate that this method enables us to measure the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The scattering image observed in the back focal plane of the objective is projected onto the camera sensor by inserting a Bertrand lens in the optical path of the microscope. With monochromatic light illumination, we quantify the angle-dependent reflectance spectra from the wing scales of <i>Morpho rhetenor</i> by retrieving the raw signal from the digital camera sensor. We also demonstrate that the polarization-dependent reflection of individual wing scales is readily observed using this method, using the individual wing scales of <i>Morpho cypris</i>. In an effort to show the generality of the method, we used a chiral nematic fluid to illustrate the angle-dependent reflectance as seen by this method.