Supplementary Material for: Yamaguchi Facial Expression-Making Task in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Novel and Enjoyable Make-a-Face Game
2012-06-20T00:00:00Z (GMT) by
Background: To assess the ability to make emotional facial expressions, we newly developed the Yamaguchi facial expression-making task (Y-FEMT). Method: We recruited 20 normal controls and 61 outpatients: 10 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), 34 with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and 17 with moderate AD. In the Y-FEMT, smile and anger expressions were made by arranging face parts. We examined the relationship between each Y-FEMT score and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score or overlapping figure identification test (Fig-test). Results: The Total score (0–20) was nearly achieved in controls (18.9 ± 1.4) and declined with AD progression (aMCI 17.2 ± 2.4, mild AD 15.7 ± 2.6, moderate AD 12.3 ± 2.7). The Anger score (0–10) was significantly lower than the Smile score (0–10) in mild and moderate AD (p = 0.007 and p = 0.006, respectively). The Structure score (0–6 each) correlated well with both the MMSE score (r = 0.44, p < 0.001) and Fig-test (r = 0.45, p < 0.001), whereas the Expression score (0–4 each) correlated only with the MMSE score (r = 0.33, p = 0.01). The Subjective scores (0–4), evaluated by 10 therapists, highly correlated with the Total score. Additionally, the Y-FEMT promoted laughter and a convivial atmosphere. Conclusion: The Y-FEMT pleasantly assessed the ability to make emotional facial expressions without special equipment. Furthermore, the Y-FEMT may provide helpful clues for caregivers to achieve good communication with AD patients for better care.