Supplementary Material for: X-Aptamer Technology Identifies C4A and ApoB in Blood as Potential Markers for Schizophrenia

The field of proteomics is rapidly gaining territory as a promising alternative to genomic approaches in the efforts to unravel the complex molecular mechanisms underlying schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. X-aptamer tech­nology has emerged as a novel proteomic approach for high-sensitivity analyses, and we hypothesized that this technology would identify unique molecular signatures in plasma samples from schizophrenia patients (<i>n</i> = 60) compared to controls (<i>n</i> = 20). Using a combinatorial library of X-aptamer beads, we developed a two-color flow cytometer-based approach to identify specific X-aptamers that bound with high specificity to each target group. Based on this, we synthesized two unique X-aptamer sequences, and specific proteins pulled down from the patient and control groups by these X-aptamers were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified two protein biomarkers, complement component C4A and ApoB, upregulated in plasma samples from schizophrenia patients. ELISA validation suggested that the observed differences in C4 levels in patients are likely due to the presence of the illness itself, while ApoB may be a marker of antipsychotic-induced alterations. These studies highlight the utility of the X-aptamer technology in the identification of biomarkers for schizophrenia that will advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder.