Supplementary Material for: Ultrasonographic Study of Initial Size and Postnatal Growth of Kidneys in Preterm Infants

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Preterm birth is known to be associated with risks of impaired nephrogenesis. <b><i>Objectives:</i></b> To determine the normal range of renal sizes at birth in preterm infants as well as their short-term postnatal renal growth, to assess the correlation between initial renal size and growth parameters at birth and to compare the initial and serial renal sizes between appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) preterm infants. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Initial ultrasonography (US) was prospectively performed in 125 preterm infants within the first 72 h of life and every 2 weeks thereafter until a postmenstrual age (PMA) of 37 weeks was reached. Correlation between renal size and growth parameters was investigated. Renal lengths of AGA and SGA preterm infants were compared with those of age-matched fetuses described in the literature. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The renal sizes at birth in preterm infants are presented. Multiple regression analysis showed the strongest correlation between initial renal size and birth weight (p < 0.0001). Initial renal lengths of AGA infants were not significantly different from those of age-matched fetuses at ≥30 weeks' gestational age (GA), whereas those of SGA infants were significantly smaller at ≥28 weeks' GA. Serial renal lengths of SGA infants were significantly smaller than fetal renal lengths at ≥30 weeks' GA. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> With US, the normal range of initial renal sizes of AGA preterm infants was defined according to GA. In contrast to AGA infants, SGA infants showed smaller initial renal sizes and no significant catch-up growth until a PMA of 37 weeks.