Supplementary Material for: The Role of O-GlcNAcylation in Perivascular Adipose Tissue Dysfunction of Offspring of High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which reduces vascular contractility, is dysfunctional in the male offspring of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), partially due to a reduced NO bioavailability. O-GlcNAcylation of eNOS decreases its activity, thus we investigated the role of O-GlcNAcylation in the prenatal programming of PVAT dysfunction. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control (10% fat) or an obesogenic HFD (45% fat) diet for 12 weeks prior to mating, and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto the control diet and were killed at 12 and 24 weeks of age. Mesenteric arteries from the 12-week-old offspring of HFD dams (HFDO) contracted less to U46619; these effects were mimicked by glucosamine in control arteries. PVAT from 12- and 24-week-old controls, but not from HFDO, exerted an anticontractile effect. Glucosamine attenuated the anticontractile effect of PVAT in the vessels from controls but not from HFDO. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation (with A769662) partially restored an anticontractile effect in glucosamine-treated controls and HFDO PVAT. Glucosamine decreased AMPK activity and expression in HFDO PVAT, although phosphorylated eNOS expression was only reduced in that from males. The loss of anticontractile effect of HFDO PVAT is likely to result from increased O-GlcNAcylation, which decreased AMPK activity and, in males, decreased NO bioavailability.