Supplementary Material for: The Impact of Low-Grade Germinal Matrix-Intraventricular Hemorrhage on Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Very Preterm Infants

<p><b><i>Background:</i></b> Very preterm infants often show germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) on cranial ultrasound (cUS). <b><i>Aim:</i></b> To determine the impact of low-grade GMH-IVH on early neurodevelopmental outcome in very preterm infants. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> A retrospective case-control study in very preterm infants with and without low-grade GMH-IVH on cUS. Additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was available in all infants with a gestational age (GA) <28 weeks and high-risk infants >28 weeks. Infants were seen at 2 years' corrected age to assess neurodevelopment. <b><i>Results:</i></b> In total, 136 infants (GA 24-32 weeks) with low-grade GMH-IVH on cUS were matched with 255 controls. Outcome data was available for 342 (87%) infants. Adverse outcome (i.e., cerebral palsy [CP], neurodevelopmental delay) was present in 11 (9%) cases and 20 (9%) controls. No statistically significant differences in outcome were found between cases and controls. Additional MRI was performed in 165/391 infants (42%) and showed additional lesions in 73 (44%) infants that could explain subsequent development of CP in 2 out of 5 infants and epilepsy in 1 of 2 infants. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Very preterm infants with low-grade GMH-IVH on cUS have a similar early neurodevelopmental outcome compared with controls. Additional MRI showed mostly subtle abnormalities that were missed with cUS, but these could not explain subsequent development of CP and developmental delay in all infants.</p>