Supplementary Material for: Somatic Mosaicism in Bulls Estimated from Genome-Wide CNV Array and TSPY Gene Copy Numbers

Somatic mosaicism has become a focus in human research due to the implications of individual genetic variability in disease. Here, we assessed somatic copy number variations (CNVs) in Holstein bulls in 2 respects. We estimated genome-wide CNVs and assayed CNVs of the TSPY gene, the most variable bovine gene from the Y chromosome. Somatic tissues (blood, lung, heart, muscle, testis, and brain) of 4 bulls were arrayed on the Illumina Bovine SNP50k chip and qPCR tested for TSPY copy numbers. Our results showed extensive copy number divergence in tissues within the same animal as well as significant copy number alterations of TSPY. We detected a mean of 31 CNVs per animal among which 14 were of germline origin, as they were constantly present in all investigated tissues of the animal, while 18 were specific to 1 tissue. Thus, 57% of the total number of detected CNVs was the result of de novo somatic events. Further, TSPY copy number was found to vary significantly among tissues as well as among the same tissue type from different animals in a wide range from 7 to 224% of the calibrator. Our study shows significant autosomal and Y-chromosomal de novo somatic CNV in bulls.