Supplementary Material for: RNA Polymerase II Forms Transcription Networks in Rye and Arabidopsis Nuclei and Its Amount Increases with Endopolyploidy

2017-03-13T11:14:27Z (GMT) by Schubert V.
RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is responsible for the transcription of most eukaryotic genes. In mammalian nuclei, RNAPII is mainly localized in relatively few distinct transcription factories. In this study - applying super-resolution microscopy - it is shown that in plants, inactive (non-phosphorylated) and active (phosphorylated) RNAPII modifications compose distinct ‘transcription networks' within the euchromatin. These reticulate structures sometimes attach to each other, but they are absent from heterochromatin and nucleoli. The global RNAPII distribution within nuclei is not influenced by interphase chromatin organization such as Rabl (rye) versus non-Rabl <i>(Arabidopsis thaliana)</i> orientation. Replication of sister chromatids without cell division causes endopolyploidy, a phenomenon widespread in plants and animals. Endopolyploidy raises the number of gene copies per nucleus. Here, it is shown that the amounts of active and inactive RNAPII enzymes in differentiated 2-32C leaf nuclei of <i>A. thaliana</i> proportionally increase with rising endopolyploidy. Thus, increasing the transcriptional activity of cells and tissues seems to be an important function of endopolyploidy.