Supplementary Material for: Pulmonary Hypertension in Renal Disease: Epidemiology, Potential Mechanisms and Implications

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is highly prevalent in end-stage renal disease. Several observational studies, based on an echocardiographic diagnosis of PH, have suggested a prevalence of 30-60% and an association with increased mortality and poorer outcome following renal transplantation. The pathogenesis of PH in this population remains poorly understood. Reported associations include arteriovenous fistulae, cardiac dysfunction, fluid overload, bone mineral disorder and non-biocompatible dialysis membranes. However, due to the small numbers, the cross-sectional nature of the majority of studies in this field, and the reliance on echocardiography for the diagnosis of PH, no consistent association with any individual risk factor has been demonstrated. There is no difference in prevalence between patients receiving different dialysis modalities and emerging evidence suggests that the onset of the condition may precede dialysis treatment in many patients. Furthermore, little is known about the impact of the ‘uraemic vasculopathy' on the pulmonary vasculature. Given the similarities between vascular changes in uraemia and those seen in pulmonary arterial hypertension, it is possible that a pulmonary vasculopathy may be present in a proportion of patients. There is a need for better understanding of the natural history and the pathogenesis of the condition which would help to individualise treatment of PH in end-stage renal disease. To enable such understanding, prospective adequately powered studies with an integrated investigational approach including right heart catheterisation are needed.