Supplementary Material for: Novel Splice Site Mutation in MAMLD1 in a Patient with Hypospadias

MAMLD1 is a causative gene for disorders of sex development. Several MAMLD1 mutations have been shown to cause hypospadias by generating dysfunctional proteins and/or unstable mRNAs. Here, we identified an intronic mutation of MAMLD1 (g.IVS4−2A>G) in 1 of 180 hypospadias patients. RT-PCR of the patient's skin sample showed normal expression of full-length MAMLD1 and markedly reduced expression of a known splice variant lacking exon 4. A hitherto unreported splice variant that lacks exon 5 was similarly identified in samples of the patient and control individuals. The full-length transcript of the patient contained mutant mRNA lacking the first 10 nucleotides of exon 5 (c.1822_1831delACTCATGTAG, p.K609fsX1070). In vitro assays using cells expressing the full-length wild-type and mutant proteins revealed reduced expression of the mutant. The expression of the wild-type and mutant MAMLD1 showed parallel changes upon treatment with a proteasome inhibitor and a translation inhibitor. The mutant-expressing cells exerted low transactivation activity for the Hes3 promoter, which reflected limited expression of the mutant protein. These results imply that the pathogenic events resulting from MAMLD1 mutations include splice errors. Furthermore, this study raises the possibility of translation failure of MAMLD1 mutants, which deserves further investigation.