Supplementary Material for: New Interleukins in Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis Patients: The Possible Roles of Interleukin-33 to Interleukin-38 in Disease Activities and Bone Erosions

Objectives: New interleukins (ILs), especially members of IL-1 and IL-12 families, have recently been reported to be involved in the development and regulation of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of these new ILs in psoriasis (Ps) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods: Forty PsA patients, 20 Ps patients, and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Blood samples were obtained for detecting the levels of ILs, IL-12/23p40, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The severity of skin lesions was assessed by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Arthritis activities of PsA patients were assessed by the PsA Joint Activity Index. For PsA patients, circulating osteoclastogenesis-related cytokines (osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand) and numbers of osteoclast precursors were evaluated. Radiographic features of affected joints in these patients were scored for erosion, joint-space narrowing, osteolysis, and new bone formation. Correlations among levels of these ILs, Ps, and PsA disease activities and bone erosions were studied. Results: Ps and PsA patients had higher serum levels of TNF-α, IL-12/23p40, and IL-33. Serum levels of IL-34 and IL-35 were higher in PsA patients than in Ps patients and HCs. Patients with pustular Ps had higher serum levels of IL-36α and IL-38 than patients with Ps vulgaris or HCs. Increased serum levels of IL-36α were positively correlated with PASI. Conclusion: Certain ILs were elevated in the circulation of patients with Ps and PsA, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of skin lesions and arthritis.