Supplementary Material for: Neuroanatomical, Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Post-Stroke Dysphagia

<b><i>Background and Purpose:</i></b> About half of the dysphagic stroke patients have persistent swallowing dysfunction after 7 days from symptom onset. The aim of the study was to evaluate incidence, prognosis, clinical and neuroradiological correlates of post-stroke dysphagia. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We prospectively examined consecutive patients with acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Patients' clinical and neuroradiological data were collected. Swallowing function was assessed by the water swallow test upon admission and after 14 days; patients were then classified as persistent dysphagic, non-persistent dysphagic or non-dysphagic. <b><i>Results:</i></b> We recruited 275 patients, 121 of whom were dysphagic upon admission and 254 patients attended follow-up at 14 days; 141 never presented dysphagia, 21 had a non-persistent pattern of dysphagia and 92 had a persistent one. Stroke type, leukoaraiosis degree, previous cognitive impairment and stroke severity upon admission independently predicted the occurrence of dysphagia after stroke and its persistence as well. At receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 11.5 was the best predictive value of persistent dysphagia, with a specificity of 90.1% and a sensitivity of 72.4%. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Stroke severity is an important predictor of a persistent pattern of dysphagia, with a suggested NIHSS cutoff value of ≥12. An independent correlation was observed with leukoaraiosis and with previous cognitive impairment.