Supplementary Material for: Molecular Nodal Staging Using miRNA Expression in Lung Cancer Patients by Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration

<b><i>Background:</i></b> The limited negative predictive value of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has often been discussed. <b><i>Objective:</i></b> The aim of this study was to identify a highly sensitive molecular biomarker for lymph node staging by EBUS-TBNA. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Five microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR-200a, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-141, and let-7e) were selected as biomarker candidates for the detection of nodal metastasis in a miRNA expression analysis. After having established a cutoff level of expression for each marker to differentiate malignant from benign lymph nodes among surgically dissected lymph nodes, the cutoff level was applied to snap-frozen EBUS-TBNA samples. Archived formalin-fixed paraffin- embedded (FFPE) samples rebiopsied by EBUS-TBNA after induction chemoradiotherapy were also analyzed. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The expression of all candidate miRNAs was significantly higher in metastatic lymph nodes than in benign ones (<i>p</i> < 0.05) among the surgical samples. miR-200c showed the highest diagnostic yield, with a sensitivity of 95.4% and a specificity of 100%. When the cutoff value for miR-200c was applied to the snap-frozen EBUS-TBNA samples, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were 97.4, 81.8, 95.0, 90.0, and 94.0%, respectively. For restaging FFPE EBUS- TBNA samples, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were 100, 60.0, 80.0, 100, and 84.6%, respectively. Among the restaged samples, 4 malignant lymph nodes were false negative by EBUS-TBNA, but they were accurately identified by miR-200c. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> miR-200c can be used as a highly sensitive molecular staging biomarker that will enhance nodal staging of lung cancer.