Supplementary Material for: Intracranial Navigation Using a Novel Device for Endoscope Fixation and Targeting: Technical Innovation

Intracranial endoscopy involves point-to-point navigation: first, in the introduction of the endoscope into a cerebrospinal fluid-containing space and, second, in the identification of a target structure. We report testing and preliminary clinical use of a device for the direct cranial fixation and point-to-point neuronavigation of a rigid ventricular endoscope. An 18-month-old female child presented with rapidly progressive macrocephaly, developmental delay and left hemiparesis. Neuroimaging revealed a large suprasellar cyst and obstructive hydrocephalus. We adapted a ball-stem device with an endoscopic working channel for direct cranial fixation over a burr hole. This device was successfully used in conjunction with MR-based neuronavigation to fenestrate the cyst. Seven months after the operation her developmental delay, macrocephaly and hemiparesis resolved. This device may be particularly effective in cases of small ventricles, ambiguous intra-ventricular landmarks, and in children too young for head-holder immobilization.