Supplementary Material for: Innate Immunity Protein Tag7 Induces 3 Distinct Populations of Cytotoxic Cells That Use Different Mechanisms to Exhibit Their Antitumor Activity on Human Leukocyte Antigen-Deficient Cancer Cells

<p>The search for new immune response mechanisms capable of controlling immune-evasive tumor cells devoid of the MHC antigen is a challenging task for immunologists. In this study, we found that the treatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with the innate immunity protein Tag7 (PGRP-S, PGLYRP1) induces differentiation of the populations of NK (natural killer) cells and CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes that are cytotoxic for human leukocyte antigen-negative tumor cells. These populations employ different mechanisms of tumor cell lysis (based on the release of granzymes in the case of NK cells and on the FasL-Fas interaction in the case of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes) and induce different death pathways (apoptosis or necroptosis) in tumor cells. An analysis of genes activated in leukocyte populations after Tag7 treatment and experiments with specific inhibitors have shown that the TREM-1 receptor expressed on the monocyte cell surface is essential for activation of cytotoxic activity. Overall, the results of this study provide evidence for a novel role of the Tag7 protein in the immune response.</p>