Supplementary Material for: Incidence of Respiratory Viral Infections Detected by PCR and Real-Time PCR in Adult Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Meta-Analysis

<b><i>Background:</i></b> With the development of more rapid and sensitive detection methods based on PCR techniques, the contributions of respiratory viral infections to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adult patients are being more and more recognized. Yet, up to now, there has been a lack of synthetic data that clearly demonstrates the incidence of respiratory viral infections in adult patients with CAP. <b><i>Objectives:</i></b> We intended to demonstrate the incidence of respiratory viral infections detected by PCR and real-time PCR in adult patients with CAP. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We searched PubMed and Embase for studies providing the incidence of respiratory viral infections in adult patients with CAP. We investigated potential sources of heterogeneity by a univariant metaregression analysis and calculated the combined incidence of viral infections, viral infections mixed with other pathogens and individual respiratory virus species. <b><i>Results:</i></b> We eventually identified 23 eligible reports with a total number of 6,404 patients. Incidences ranged from 8.6 to 56.2% for overall respiratory viral infections. We noted significant heterogeneity in incidence estimates for the incidence of viral infections (Cochran's χ<sup>2</sup> = 269.9, p < 0.0001, I<sup>2</sup> = 91.8%). The combined incidence of viral infections was 22.4% (95% CI = 19.0-25.7). Incidences of viral coinfections with other pathogens ranged from 3 to 28%. A high level of heterogeneity was identified as well during the estimates for incidences of coinfections (χ<sup>2</sup> = 200.9, p < 0.0001, I<sup>2</sup> = 91.5%). The combined incidence of viral coinfections with other pathogens was 12.4% (95% CI = 9.7-15.0). Our heterogeneity analyses suggested that a lower respiratory tract sample was associated with higher overall viral incidence. Moreover, the influenza virus, rhinovirus and coronavirus were the 3 most frequently detected viral pathogens in adult patients with CAP according to our study. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Respiratory viruses are probably crucial pathogens of adult patients with CAP, with the influenza virus being the most frequent viral pathogen identified. More than half of the viral infections are characterized as mixed infections with other pathogens.