Supplementary Material for: Human Invariant Natural Killer T Cells Respond to Antigen-Presenting Cells Exposed to Lipids from Olea europaea Pollen

<p><b><i>Background:</i></b> Allergic sensitization might be influenced by the lipids present in allergens, which can be recognized by natural killer T (NKT) cells on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The aim of this study was<b> </b>to analyze the effect of olive pollen lipids in human APCs, including monocytes as well as monocyte-derived macrophages (Mϕ) and dendritic cells (DCs). <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Lipids were extracted from olive (<i>Olea europaea</i>) pollen grains. Invariant (i)NKT cells, monocytes, Mϕ, and DCs were obtained from buffy coats of healthy blood donors, and their cell phenotype was determined by flow cytometry. iNKT cytotoxicity was measured using a lactate dehydrogenase assay. Gene expression of <i>CD1A</i> and <i>CD1D</i> was performed by RT-PCR, and the production of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α cytokines by monocytes, Mϕ, and DCs was measured by ELISA. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Our results showed that monocytes and monocyte-derived Mϕ treated with olive pollen lipids strongly activate iNKT cells. We observed several phenotypic modifications in the APCs upon exposure to pollen-derived lipids. Both Mϕ and monocytes treated with olive pollen lipids showed an increase in <i>CD1D</i> gene expression, whereas upregulation of cell surface CD1d protein occurred only in Mϕ. Furthermore, DCs differentiated in the presence of human serum enhance their surface CD1d expression when exposed to olive pollen lipids. Finally, olive pollen lipids were able to stimulate the production of IL-6 but downregulated the production of lipopolysaccharide- induced IL-10 by Mϕ. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Olive pollen lipids alter the phenotype of monocytes, Mϕ, and DCs, resulting in the activation of NKT cells, which have the potential to influence allergic immune responses.</p>