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Supplementary Material for: Genomic Characteristics and Changes of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus Strain CK/CH/LDL/97I after Serial Passages in Chicken Embryos

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posted on 29.08.2014 by Zhao F., Han Z., Zhang T., Shao Y., Kong X., Ma H., Liu S.
Background: We previously attenuated the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain CK/CH/LDL/97I and found that it can convey protection against the homologous pathogenic virus. Objective: To compare the full-length genome sequences of the Chinese IBV strain CK/CH/LDL/97I and its embryo-passaged, attenuated level to identify sequence substitutions responsible for the attenuation and define markers of attenuation. Methods: The full-length genomes of CK/CH/LDL/97I P5 and P115 were amplified and sequenced. The sequences were assembled and compared using the MEGALIGN program (DNAStar) and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA4 software. Results: The CK/CH/LDL/97I virus population contained subpopulations with a mixture of genetic mutants. Changes were observed in nsp4, nsp9, nsp11/12, nsp14, nsp15, nsp16, and ORF3a, but these did not result in amino acid substitutions or did not show functional variations. Amino acid substitutions occurred in the remaining genes between P5 and P115; most were found in the S region, and some of the nucleotide mutations resulted in amino acid substitutions. Among the 9 nsps in the ORF1 region, nsp3 contained the most nucleotide substitutions. Conclusions: Sequence variations in different genes, especially the S gene and nsp3, in the genomes of CK/CH/LDL/97I viruses might contribute to differences in viral replication, pathogenicity, antigenicity, immunogenicity, and tissue tropism.

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