Supplementary Material for: Effects of a Supplementation of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with or without Fish Gelatin on Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Obese, Insulin-Resistant Subjects

<em>Aim:</em> To investigate gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-3 PUFA plus fish gelatin (+FG) supplementation. <i>Methods:</i> A transcriptome comparison of 8-week supplementation with n-3 PUFA and n-3 PUFA+FG was carried out in PBMCs of 16 obese insulin-resistant subjects. <i>Results:</i> Erythrocyte n-3 PUFA concentration increased and plasma triglycerides decreased significantly without altering inflammatory parameters after both supplementations. n-3 PUFA supplementation changed the expression of 805 genes, whereas n-3 PUFA+FG supplementation altered the expression of 184 genes. Three genes were commonly changed: fatty acid desaturase 1, free fatty acid receptor 3, and ectodysplasin. Pathway analyses indicate changes in gene expression via the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α pathway after both supplementations. Further, the extent of modifications in the expression of genes implicated in the inflammatory pathways – the oxidative stress response mediated by nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, nuclear transcription factor ĸB, oxidative stress, and hypoxia-inducible factor signaling – was different after each supplementation. <i>Conclusion:</i> Although n-3 PUFA and n-3 PUFA+FG supplementations have a distinct impact on gene expression levels, the consequences on biochemical parameters and metabolic pathways were comparable after both supplementations.