Supplementary Material for: Effects of Vitamin E-Coated versus Conventional Membranes in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Introduction: Accruing evidence suggests that vitamin E-coated membranes (ViE-m) might improve the clinical management of chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs comparing ViE-m to conventional HD. Endpoints of interest were a series of biomarkers pertaining to anemia status, inflammation, oxidative stress and dialysis efficacy/status. Results: Sixty studies were included. ViE-m significantly improved the Erythropoietin Resistance Index but had no impact on other anemia parameters. As for oxidative stress and inflammation, ViE-m produced a significant decrease in interleukin-6 levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, plasma and red blood cell (RBC) malonylaldehyde and a significant increase in blood and RBC vitamin E. Conversely, ViE-m use had no impact on lipid profile, dialysis adequacy, blood pressure, albumin and uric acid. Conclusions: ViE-m might ameliorate anemia management by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation. Benefits of these bio-membranes on harder clinical outcomes are uncertain and need to be investigated by future, targeted trials.