Supplementary Material for: Effect of Dietary Calcium and Dairy Proteins on the Adipose Tissue Gene Expression Profile in Diet-Induced Obesity

<i>Background/Aims:</i> Calcium and dairy proteins have been postulated to explain why the intake of dairy products correlates inversely with body mass index in several populations. We have shown that a high-calcium diet with whey protein attenuates weight gain and now we describe the effects of this diet on adipose tissue gene expression. <i>Methods:</i> Nine-week-old C57Bl/6J mice were divided into two groups (n = 10/group). The control diet was a standard high-fat diet (60% of energy) low in calcium (0.4%). The whey protein diet was a high-calcium (1.8%), high-fat diet with whey protein. After the 21-week treatment, adipose tissue transcript profiling (2 mice/group) was performed using Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0. <i>Results:</i> The high-calcium diet with whey protein altered the expression of 129 genes (± 1.2 fold). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed the significant up-regulation of Adrb3 (p = 0.002) and leptin (p = 0.0019) in the high-calcium whey group. Insulin and adipocytokine signaling pathways were enriched among the up-regulated genes and the fatty acid metabolism pathway among the down-regulated genes. <i>Conclusions:</i> High-calcium diet with whey protein significantly modifies adipose tissue gene expression. These preliminary findings reveal that targets of a high-calcium diet with whey protein include genes for Adrb3 and leptin, and help to explain how the intake of dairy products might attenuate obesity.