Supplementary Material for: Differences in Copy Number Variation between Discordant Monozygotic Twins as a Model for Exploring Chromosomal Mosaicism in Congenital Heart Defects

Studies addressing the role of somatic copy number variation (CNV) in the genesis of congenital heart defects (CHDs) are scarce, as cardiac tissue is difficult to obtain, especially in non-affected individuals. We explored the occurrence of copy number differences in monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for the presence of a CHD, as an illustrative model for chromosomal mosaicism in CHDs. Array comparative genomic hybridization was performed on peripheral blood-derived DNA obtained from 6 discordant MZ twin pairs and on sex-matched reference samples. To identify CNV differences between both twin members as well as potential CNVs in both twins contributing to the phenotype, DNA from each twin was hybridized against its co-twin, and against a normal control. Three copy number differences in 1 out of 6 MZ twin pairs were detected, confirming the occurrence of somatic CNV events in MZ twins. Further investigation by copy number and (epi)genome sequencing analyses in MZ twins, discordant for the presence of CHDs, is required to improve our knowledge on how postzygotic genetic, environmental and stochastic factors can affect human heart development.