Supplementary Material for: Cooperative Effects of Q10, Vitamin D3, and L-Arginine on Cardiac and Endothelial Cells

<p>This work demonstrates the cooperative effect of Q10, vitamin D<sub>3,</sub> and L-arginine on both cardiac and endothelial cells. The effects of Q10, L-arginine, and vitamin D<sub>3</sub> alone or combined on cell viability, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species productions in endothelial and cardiac cells were studied. Moreover, the involvement of PI3K/Akt and ERK/MAPK pathways leading to eNOS activation as well as the involvement of vitamin D receptor were also investigated. The same agents were tested in an animal model to verify vasodilation, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species production. The data obtained in this work demonstrate for the first time the beneficial and cooperative effect of stimulation with Q10, L-arginine, and vitamin D<sub>3</sub>. Indeed, in cardiac and endothelial cells, Q10, L-arginine, and vitamin D<sub>3</sub> combined were able to induce a nitric oxide production higher than the that induced by the 3 substances alone. The effects on vasodilation induced by cooperative stimulation have been confirmed in an in vivo model as well. The use of a combination of Q10, L-arginine, and vitamin D to counteract increased free radical production could be a potential method to reduce myocardial injury or the effects of aging on the heart.</p>