Supplementary Material for: Compact Intraoperative MRI: Stereotactic Accuracy and Future Directions

<p><b><i>Background:</i></b> Intraoperative imaging must supply data that can be used for accurate stereotactic navigation. This information should be at least as accurate as that acquired from diagnostic imagers. <b><i>Objectives:</i></b> The aim of this study was to compare the stereotactic accuracy of an updated compact intraoperative MRI (iMRI) device based on a 0.15-T magnet to standard surgical navigation on a 1.5-T diagnostic scan MRI and to navigation with an earlier model of the same system. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The accuracy of each system was assessed using a water-filled phantom model of the brain. Data collected with the new system were compared to those obtained in a previous study assessing the older system. The accuracy of the new iMRI was measured against standard surgical navigation on a 1.5-T MRI using T1-weighted (W) images. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The mean error with the iMRI using T1W images was lower than that based on images from the 1.5-T scan (1.24 vs. 2.43 mm). T2W images from the newer iMRI yielded a lower navigation error than those acquired with the prior model (1.28 vs. 3.15 mm). <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Improvements in magnet design can yield progressive increases in accuracy, validating the concept of compact, low-field iMRI. Avoiding the need for registration between image and surgical space increases navigation accuracy.</p>