Supplementary Material for: Cloning and Characterization of Chromosomal Markers from a Cot-1 Library of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

2012-07-11T00:00:00Z (GMT) by Zhang L. Xu C. Yu W.
The cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea (AABB, 2n = 40), is an allotetraploid which was probably originated from a hybridization event between 2 ancestors, A. duranensis (A genome) and A. ipaensis (B genome) followed by chromosome doubling. The wild species in the Arachis section are useful genetic resources for genes that confer biotic and abiotic stress resistance for peanut breeding. However, the resource is not well exploited because little information on the genetic, cytogenetic, and phylogenetic relationships between cultivated peanut and its wild relatives is known. Characterization of its chromosome components will benefit the understanding of these issues. But the paucity of information on the DNA sequence and the presence of morphologically similar chromosomes impede the construction of a detailed karyotype for peanut chromosome identification. In our study, a peanut Cot-1 library was constructed to isolate highly and moderately repetitive sequences from the cultivated peanut, and the chromosomal distributions of these repeats were investigated. Both genome and chromosome specific markers were identified that allowed the distinguishing of A and B genomes in tetraploid peanut and a possible karyotyping of peanut chromosomes by FISH. In particular, a 115-bp tandem repetitive sequence was identified to be a possible centromere repetitive DNA, mainly localized in the centromeres of B chromosomes, and a partial retrotransposable element was also identified in the centromeres of B chromosomes. The cloning and characterization of various chromosomal markers is a major step for FISH-based karyotyping of peanut. The FISH markers are expected to provide a reference tool for sequence assembly, phylogenetic studies of peanut and its wild species, and breeding.