Supplementary Material for: Analysis of Senescence-Related Differentiation Potentials and Gene Expression Profiles in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

<p><b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Dental pulp stem cell (DPSC)-mediated dental pulp regeneration is considered a promising method for the treatment of deep caries with pulpitis. However, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) senescence is an adverse factor from the perspective of cell-based therapies. In this study, we investigated the characteristics and expression profiles of DPSCs from young and old donors. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> DPSCs from young and old donors were cultured in differentiation medium, and their differentiation potentials were assessed. Long noncoding RNA (LncRNA) microarray assays and a bioinformatic analysis were performed to investigate differences in LncRNA and mRNA expression profiles between DPSCs from young and old donors. <b><i>Results:</i></b> We found that DPSCs from young donors exhibited more powerful proliferation ability and greater osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials than DPSCs from old donors. In DPSCs from young donors, numerous LncRNAs were significantly up- (n = 389) or down-regulated (n = 172) compared to DPSCs from old donors. Furthermore, 304 mRNAs were differentially expressed, including 247 up-regulated genes and 57 down-regulated genes in DPSCs from young donors. The bioinformatic analysis identified that several pathways may be associated with DPSC characteristics, such as those involved in the cell cycle and RNA transport, and revealed nuclear transcription factor Y subunit β, general transcription factor IIB, and nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1 as core regulatory factors and FR249114, FR299091, and ENST00000450004 as core LncRNAs. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Our results indicated that senescence impaired the proliferation and differentiation potentials of DPSCs and that donor age is an important factor that affects their use for tooth regeneration. We also provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for senescence in DPSCs.</p>