Supplementary Material for: A high-resolution linkage map for the Z chromosome in chicken reveals hot spots for recombination

A comprehensive linkage map for chicken chromosome Z was constructed as the result of a large-scale screening of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A total of 308 SNPs were assigned to Z based on the genotype distribution among 182 birds representing several populations. A linkage map comprising 210 markers and spanning 200.9 cM was established by analyzing a small Red junglefowl/White Leghorn intercross. There was excellent agreement between the linkage map for Z and a recently released assembly of the chicken genome (May 2006). Almost all SNPs assigned to chromosome Z in the present study are on Z in the new genome assembly. The remaining 12 loci are all found on unassigned contigs that can now be assigned to Z. The average recombination rate was estimated at 2.7 cM/Mb but there was a very uneven distribution of recombination events with both cold and hot spots of recombination. The existence of one of the major hot spots of recombination, located around position 39.4 Mb, was supported by the observed pattern of linkage disequilibrium. Thirteen markers from unassigned contigs were shown to be located on chromosome W. Three of these contigs included genes that have homologues on chromosome Z. The preliminary assignment of three more genes to the gene-poor W chromosome may be important for studies on the mechanism of sex determination and dosage compensation in birds.




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