Supplementary Material for: A Novel Tumor-Suppressor, CDH18, Inhibits Glioma Cell Invasiveness Via UQCRC2 and Correlates with the Prognosis of Glioma Patients

<b><i>Background/Aims:</i></b> CDH18 (cadherin 18) is specifically expressed in the central nervous system and associated with various neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, the role of CDH18 in glioma carcinogenesis and progression was investigated. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The expression of CDH18 and its prognostic value in patients with gliomas were analyzed in public database and validated by real-time PCR/immunohistochemical staining (IHC) in our cohort. CCK-8 assay, transwell migration assay, wound healing assay, clonogenic assay and tumorigenicity assay were used to compare the proliferation, invasion and migration ability of glioma cells with different expressions of CDH18. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis were used to reveal the downstream target of CDH18. Rescue experiments were conducted to further validate the relationship between UQCRC2 and CDH18. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The expression of CDH18 was depressed in a ladder-like pattern from normal tissues to WHO IV gliomas, and was an independent prognostic factor in TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas), CGGA (the Chinese glioma genome-atlas) and our glioma cohorts (n=453). Functional experiments <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> demonstrated that CDH18 inhibited invasion/migration, enhanced chemoresistance and suppressed tumorigenicity of glioma cells. UQCRC2 was identified as the downstream target of CDH18 by proteomic analysis. The expression of UQCRC2 was gradually absent as the WHO grades of gliomas escalated and was positively correlated with the expression of CDH18. Furthermore, <i>in vitro</i> assays demonstrated that down-regulation of UQCRC2 partly reversed the inhibition of invasion/migration ability and chemoresistance in CDH18 overexpressed glioma cell lines. Survival analysis demonstrated that combined CDH18/UQCRC2 biomarkers significantly influenced the prognosis of glioma patients. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> The present research demonstrated that CDH18 exerted its tumor-suppressor role via UQCRC2 in glioma cells and CDH18 might serve as a therapeutic target for treating gliomas.

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