Stochastic user equilibrium model with a tradable credit scheme and application in maximizing network reserve capacity
The tradable credit scheme (TCS) outperforms congestion pricing in terms of social equity and revenue neutrality, apart from the same perfect performance on congestion mitigation. This article investigates the effectiveness and efficiency of TCS on enhancing transportation network capacity in a stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) modelling framework. First, the SUE and credit market equilibrium conditions are presented; then an equivalent general SUE model with TCS is established by virtue of two constructed functions, which can be further simplified under a specific probability distribution. To enhance the network capacity by utilizing TCS, a bi-level mathematical programming model is established for the optimal TCS design problem, with the upper level optimization objective maximizing network reserve capacity and lower level being the proposed SUE model. The heuristic sensitivity analysis-based algorithm is developed to solve the bi-level model. Three numerical examples are provided to illustrate the improvement effect of TCS on the network in different scenarios.