Simultaneous Perforation and Doping of Si Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

Silicon nanostructures have served as promising building blocks for various applications, such as lithium-ion batteries, thermoelectrics, and solar energy conversions. Particularly, control of porosity and doping is critical for fine-tuning the mechanical, optical, and electrical properties of these silicon nanostructures. However, perforation and doping are usually separated processes, both of which are complicated and expensive. Here, we demonstrate that the porous nano-Si particles with controllable dopant can be massively produced through a facile and scalable method, combining ball-milling and acid-etching. Nano-Si with porosity as high as 45.8% can be achieved with 9 orders of magnitude of conductivity changes compared to intrinsic silicon. As an example for demonstration, the obtained nano-Si particles with 45.8% porosity and 3.7 atom % doping can serve as a promising anode for lithium-ion batteries with 2000 mA h/g retained over 100 cycles at the current density of 0.5 C, excellent rate performance with 1600 mA h/g at the current density of 5 C, and a stable cycling performance of above 1500 mA h/g retained over 940 cycles at the current density of 1 C with carbon coating.