Shotgun Ecotoxicoproteomics of <i>Daphnia pulex</i>: Biochemical Effects of the Anticancer Drug Tamoxifen

Among pollutants released into the environment by human activities, residues of pharmaceuticals are an increasing matter of concern because of their potential impact on ecosystems. The aim of this study was to analyze differences of protein expression resulting from acute (2 days) and middle-term (7 days) exposure of aquatic microcrustacean <i>Daphnia pulex</i> to the anticancer drug tamoxifen. Using a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry shotgun approach, about 4000 proteins could be identified, providing the largest proteomics data set of <i>D. pulex</i> published up to now. Considering both time points and tested concentrations, 189 proteins showed a significant fold change. The identity of regulated proteins suggested a decrease in translation, an increase in protein degradation and changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as the major effects of the drug. Besides these impacted processes, which reflect a general stress response of the organism, some other regulated proteins play a role in <i>Daphnia</i> reproduction. These latter results are in accordance with our previous observations of the impact of tamoxifen on <i>D. pulex</i> reproduction and illustrate the potential of ecotoxicoproteomics to unravel links between xenobiotic effects at the biochemical and organismal levels. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001257.