Salting-out-assisted liquid–liquid extraction and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic monitoring of thiacloprid in fruits and vegetables

<p>Salting-out-assisted liquid–liquid extraction (SALLE) was developed to extract thiacloprid (THI) from fruits and vegetables. SALLE conditions (NaCl/Na<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>, pH, and solvent polarity) were investigated at various levels for the optimal recovery of THI. Meanwhile, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) conditions were balanced over 1–100 µg/mL of THI. The optimized SALLE-RP-HPLC method offered 78.33–92.00% recovery of standard THI at an acceptable repeatability 1.81–4.30% and reproducibility 1.08–4.74%. The detection and quantification limits were found to be 0.03 and 0.05 µg/mL, respectively. The real-time analysis verifies its suitability and ease of use for the determination of THI in agricultural commodities.</p>