Resonance Control of a Graphene Drum Resonator in a Nonlinear Regime by a Standing Wave of Light

We demonstrate the control of resonance characteristics of a drum-type graphene mechanical resonator in a nonlinear oscillation regime using the photothermal effect, which is induced by a standing wave of light between graphene and a substrate. Unlike the resonance characteristics of a conventional Duffing-type nonlinearity, those of the nonlinear oscillation regime are modulated by the standing wave of light with a contribution of the scattered light of an actuation laser, despite a slight variation of amplitude. Numerical calculations conducted with a combination of equations of heat and motion with the Duffing-type nonlinearity explain this modulation: the photothermal effect delays the modulation of graphene stress or tension.