Quantum Transport and Band Structure Evolution under High Magnetic Field in Few-Layer Tellurene

Quantum Hall effect (QHE) is a macroscopic manifestation of quantized states that only occurs in confined two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems. Experimentally, QHE is hosted in high-mobility 2DEG with large external magnetic field at low temperature. Two-dimensional van der Waals materials, such as graphene and black phosphorus, are considered interesting material systems to study quantum transport because they could unveil unique host material properties due to the easy accessibility of monolayer or few-layer thin films at the 2D quantum limit. For the first time, we report direct observation of QHE in a novel low-dimensional material system, tellurene. High-quality 2D tellurene thin films were acquired from recently reported hydrothermal method with high hole mobility of nearly 3000 cm2/(V s) at low temperatures, which allows the observation of well-developed Shubnikov–de Haas (SdH) oscillations and QHE. A four-fold degeneracy of Landau levels in SdH oscillations and QHE was revealed. Quantum oscillations were investigated under different gate biases, tilted magnetic fields, and various temperatures, and the results manifest the inherent information on the electronic structure of Te. Anomalies in both temperature-dependent oscillation amplitudes and transport characteristics were observed that are ascribed to the interplay between the Zeeman effect and spin–orbit coupling, as depicted by the density functional theory calculations.