PowerPoint Slides for: Longitudinal Changes in Measured Glomerular Filtration Rate, Renal Fibrosis and Biomarkers in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy

<i>Background:</i> Obese ZSF-1 rats display many features of human type II diabetes including nephropathy (DN). The study aimed to further understand the relevance of this model to DN, for which glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal fibrosis and several urinary/tissue biomarkers was followed over 24 weeks in ZSF-1 rats. <i>Methods:</i>Intact/sham or uninephrectomized male and female ZSF-1 rats were studied. GFR was measured by transdermal clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-sinistrin. Urine was collected every 2-4 weeks for biomarker analysis. Renal tissue was examined histologically for fibrosis and for levels of inflammatory and fibrotic genes. <i>Results:</i>Male obese ZSF-1 rats demonstrated metabolic syndrome and proteinuria. Female counterparts were hyperlipidemic with delayed proteinuria, but were not hyperglycemic. Kidney hyperfiltration was observed in male obese rats in weeks 2-4 after surgery, and subsequently declined to levels significantly lower than controls. Tubulointerstitial/glomerular fibrosis in male obese rats was significantly elevated by week 12 post surgery and continued to expand in the ensuing weeks, particularly in uninephrectomized rats. Female rats had less severe fibrosis. Except for epidermal growth factor which decreased, the levels of several key inflammatory, injury and fibrotic factors were elevated in both tissue (mRNA) and urine (protein) of male obese rats. <i>Conclusion:</i> Male obese ZSF-1 rats represent an important DN model, manifesting key pathophysiological features including metabolic syndrome, proteinuria, progressive tubular and glomerular fibrosis, and transient hyperfiltration followed by progressive decline in renal function. Uninephrectomy significantly accelerated disease progression. Females were less severe in disease manifestation. Several urinary and tissue biomarkers were identified in the male obese rats that tracked with disease progression.