PhysiCell Demo: anti-cancer bio-robots
This is Video S6 in Ghaffarizadeh et al. (2018). A higher-resolution (1080p) video can be streamed at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wuDZ40jW__M
Using PhysiCell to test design rules for biorobots as a
Here, we construct two cell types as a bio-robotic cargo delivery system.
1) "Cargo" cells secrete a chemoattractant to attract worker cells when they don't have cargo. They turn off the chemoattractant once they are found. Cargo cells detach themselves in hypoxic regions and secrete a therapeutic drug.
2) "Worker" cells chemotax towards cargo cells, test for presence of a receptor, and dock if it's present. They haul cargo chemotactically towards hypoxic regions.
Cancer cells (green) have a drug-induced damage model in this simulation, and undergo apoptosis at a rate proportional to their damage.
This system successfully delivers a drug past biotransport limits into a growing tumor, without need for tumor-specific "homing".
This simulation took a few hours to design, and ran in about 12 minutes on a desktop workstation, with data saved once per simulated minute. (2,880 save times) Simulations without file I/O are significantly faster.
Green cells: cancer cells
Blue cells: “Cargo” cells
Red cells: “worker” cells
This work is based on PhysiCell, an open source 3-D modeling package for multicellular biology at http://PhysiCell.MathCancer.org.
Method: Demonstration of PhysiCell, an agent-based, lattice-free model. Cell velocities determined by balance of adhesive, repulsive, and motile forces. Each cell has a phenotypic state governed by stochastic processes derived from nonhomogeneous Poisson processes.