Paraoxonase, arylesterase and lactonase activities of paraoxonase-1 (PON1) in obese and severely obese women

<p>Obesity is independently associated with disturbances in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, oxidative stress, and is a well-established independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a pleotropic high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated enzyme with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proprieties that have been suggested to contribute to the athero-protective function of the lipoprotein. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity is associated with PON1 activity and whether this association is influenced by oxidative stress, inflammation and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration. The promiscuous activities, arylesterase and paraoxonase, and the putative physiological activity, lactonase, of PON1 were assessed in the serum of 214 obese and severely obese, 101 overweight and 129 normal-weight women. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), hydroperoxides (by-products of lipid oxidative damage) and lipid profiles were also evaluated. Arylesterase activity was the only activity that significantly differed across the groups (ANOVA, <i>p</i> < .01), with the greatest decrease observed in individuals with body mass index (BMI) > 40 kg/m<sup>2</sup> compared to controls (<i>p</i> < .001). This activity was also inversely, although weakly (<i>r</i> = −0.160, <i>p</i> < .001) correlated with the BMI, and the association was independent of age and levels of oxidative stress and inflammation, but not of HDL-C concentration. In conclusion, our results suggest that the apparent obesity-associated decrement of PON1 activity might simply reflect the decrease in concentration of its plasmatic carrier.</p>