Overexpression of Pha13 in engineered transgenic <i>Arabidopsis</i> enhances resistance against viruses and bacteria.

<p>(A to C) Expression level of <i>Pha13</i> (A) and accumulation level of <i>Tobacco rattle virus</i> (TRV) (B) and <i>Cucumber mosaic virus</i> (CMV) (C) were analyzed by qRT-PCR from leaves of WT (Col-0) or transgenic <i>Arabidopsis</i>. Data represent mean ± SD; n = 4 biological replicates; *, <i>P</i> < 0.05, Student’s t-test compared to vector. <i>Actin</i> was used as an internal control for normalization. (D) Disease symptoms of WT (Col-0) or transgenic <i>Arabidopsis</i> inoculated with CMV at 9 dpi. Images are one representative plant from four replicates; Scale bar, 1 cm. (E) Disease symptoms of WT (Col-0) or transgenic <i>Arabidopsis</i> inoculated with 1 × 10<sup>7</sup> cfu/ml <i>Pseudomonas syringae</i> pv. <i>tomato</i> DC30000 (PstDC3000) at 3 dpi. Images are three representative leaves from five plants; Scale bar, 1 cm. (F) The growth analysis of PstDC3000 in the infected leaves of WT or transgenic <i>Arabidopsis</i>. Data represent mean ± SD; n = 5 biological replicates. Different letters indicate statistically significant differences analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) Tukey’s test (<i>P</i> < 0.05).</p>