Neoarchaean crustal growth by combined arc–plume action: evidence from the Kadiri Greenstone Belt, eastern Dharwar craton, India
Field and geochemical studies combined with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) zircon U–Pb dating set important constraints on the timing and petrogenesis of volcanic rocks of the Neoarchaean Kadiri greenstone belt and the mechanism of crust formation in the eastern Dharwar craton (EDC). The volcanic rocks are divided into three suites: tholeiitic basalts, calc-alkaline high-Mg# andesites and dominant dacites–rhyolites. The basalts (pillowed in places) show flat rare earth element (REE) and primordial mantle-normalized trace element patterns, but have minor negative Nb and Ta anomalies. They are interpreted as mantle plume-related oceanic plateau basalts whose source contained minor continental crustal input. The andesites are characterized by high Mg# (0.66–0.52), Cr and Ni, with depletion of high-field strength elements (HFSE) and enrichment of light REE (LREE) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILE). They were probably derived from a metasomatized mantle wedge overlying a subducted slab in a continental margin subduction zone. The dacites–rhyolites are silicic rocks (SiO2=61–72 wt%) with low Cr and Ni, K2O/Na2O mostly 0.5–1.1, highly fractionated REE patterns, enrichments of LILE and distinctly negative HFSE anomalies. One rhyolite sample yielded a zircon U–Pb age of 2353±32 Ma. This suite is similar to potassic adakites and is explained as the product of deep melting of thickened crust in the arc with a significant older crustal component. Collision between a continental margin arc with an oceanic plateau followed by slab break-off, upwelling of hot asthenosphere and extensive crustal reworking in a sustained compressional regime is proposed for the geodynamic evolution of the area. This is in corroboration with the scenario of EDC as a Neoarchaean hot orogen as suggested recently by some workers.