NK cell degranulation and cytokine release in response to SIV infection.

<p>Longitudinal changes in the upregulation of CD107a (A & C) and TNFα (B & D) are shown for KIR3DL01<sup>+</sup>, KIR3DL05<sup>+</sup> and KIR3DL01<sup>-</sup>05<sup>-</sup> NK cells in response to stimulation with 721.221 cells (A & B) or without 721.221 cell stimulation (C & D). PBMCs were incubated overnight with or without 721.221 cells in the presence of an antibody to CD107a, and stained the following day with antibodies to differentiate KIR3DL01<sup>+</sup>, KIR3DL05<sup>+</sup> and KIR3DL01<sup>-</sup>05<sup>-</sup> NK cells and for intracellular accumulation of TNFα. Representative gating for CD107a and TNFα staining is shown in <a href="http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006506#ppat.1006506.s006" target="_blank">S6 Fig</a>. The mean and standard error (error bars) are plotted for the each NK cell population. Significance values for acute (weeks 1–4) and chronic (weeks 6–24) infection compared to pre-infection (week 0) are indicated with asterisks color-coded to the corresponding cell population (p<0.05*, p<0.01**, p< 0.005*** & p<0.001****, mixed effects models).</p>