Multiple viral infections in primary effusion lymphoma: a model of viral cooperation in lymphomagenesis

<p><b>Introduction</b>: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare B-cell lymphoid neoplasm mainly associated with HIV infection, presenting as pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial effusions. A defining property of PEL is its consistent association with Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, and, in most cases, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) co-infection. On these grounds, a review of the literature related to viral cooperation and lymphomagenesis can help to understand the complex interplay between KSHV and EBV in PEL pathogenesis.</p> <p><b>Areas covered</b>: In this review, the authors highlight clinical, pathologic, genetic and proteomic features of PEL, in the context of viral cooperation in PEL lymphomagenesis.</p> <p><b>Expert commentary</b>: Tumour cells are characterized by the overexpression of genes that are involved in inflammation and invasion. Coherently, PEL secretomes are enriched in proteins probably responsible for the particular tropism (cell adhesion and migration) of PEL cells. The development of PEL in HIV+ patients is multifactorial and involves a complex interplay among co-infection with oncogenic viruses (EBV and KSHV), inflammatory factors, and environmental conditions.</p>