Multifunctional Cell-Culture Platform for Aligned Cell Sheet Monitoring, Transfer Printing, and Therapy

While several functional platforms for cell culturing have been proposed for cell sheet engineering, a soft integrated system enabling <i>in vitro</i> physiological monitoring of aligned cells prior to their <i>in vivo</i> applications in tissue regeneration has not been reported. Here, we present a multifunctional, soft cell-culture platform equipped with ultrathin stretchable nanomembrane sensors and graphene-nanoribbon cell aligners, whose system modulus is matched with target tissues. This multifunctional platform is capable of aligning plated cells and <i>in situ</i> monitoring of cellular physiological characteristics during proliferation and differentiation. In addition, it is successfully applied as an <i>in vitro</i> muscle-on-a-chip testing platform. Finally, a simple but high-yield transfer printing mechanism is proposed to deliver cell sheets for scaffold-free, localized cell therapy <i>in vivo</i>. The muscle-mimicking stiffness of the platform allows the high-yield transfer printing of multiple cell sheets and results in successful therapies in diseased animal models. Expansion of current results to stem cells will provide unique opportunities for emerging classes of tissue engineering and cell therapy technologies.